The COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed unparalleled speed and cross-sector collaboration in the innovation of tools and technologies to address an emerging infectious disease outbreak. Continued innovation and collaboration in rapid development and implementation of new vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics is central to future outbreak preparedness. The National Academies Forum on Microbial Threats; Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation; and the Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Emergencies and Disasters held a workshop in December 2022 to explore how innovative approaches in research can enhance health systems preparedness and responses to emerging infectious diseases and dangerous pathogens. Workshop participants reflected on critical scientific infrastructure for stakeholder coordination and innovations that can facilitate rapid and effective preparedness and response to emerging infectious disease threats. This Proceedings of a Workshop summarizes the discussions held during the workshop.